By the beautiful sea.
Owing to the fact that Lisbon was built on a river estuary, the city has always lived side-by-side with the beach. Nevertheless, the fashion of spending summers at the seaside only took hold in the second half of the 19th century.
The industrial revolution had brought thousands of families into the city to seek their fortunes in the terrible conditions of daily life in the factories. In fewer than one hundred years, a sunburned skin which had previously been the exclusive attribute of the peasantry, had now become a luxury.
The most popular beaches thronged by Lisbon's population were almost within the city itself. Belém and Pedrouços were at the height of fashion in around 1860.
During this period, wealthy families enjoyed spending the month of August in the surrounding countryside and the month of September at the seaside. In those days, Cascais was still thought to be too far away for convenience. Until, one day, it was reached by rail and the court of king Luiz set up residence there.